Monday, May 25, 2020

The Impacts of Religion and Science in Jose Saramagos Blindness - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 11 Words: 3235 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2019/03/11 Category Religion Essay Level High school Topics: Science vs Religion Essay Did you like this example? Introduction The defining characteristic of human nature is the formation of belief systems that provide meaning in an empty world. Faith, and the religious connotations that come with it, allows humans to live with purpose, and to care for one another. It is often difficult to assess whether this ability is inherent in humans, or if the human race simply received evolutionary luck, for lack of a better term. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Impacts of Religion and Science in Jose Saramagos Blindness" essay for you Create order One thing is for certain, humans are unequivocally the superior species on planet earth. Or are we? In his novel Blindness, Jose Saramago comments on the inherent qualities of the human race when God is stripped away from them. Using blindness as a metaphor for a loss in faith, Saramago illustrates the importance and the necessity faith has in what human’s consider normal life. Saramago reveals the extraordinary nature of human civilization via negation, by exposing the sinister and often heinous true natures of humans. In addition, Saramago illustrates the similarities between science and religion. Saramago describes the difference between religious faith and scientific faith, or lack thereof, through metaphors and symbolisms weaved effortlessly into his novel. Through these discussions, Saramago highlights the fragility of our society, revealing how lucky humans are to not only have faith, but utilize it for good. By illustrating the animalistic nature of humanity in the absence of faith, Saramago indicates the fundamental importance of both science and religion in society, conveying the need for both rivaling philosophies to coexist. In order to suggest a loss in God leads to a loss in morals, Saramago must set up biblical imagery in order to establish the religious ties of the novel. According to Peter Schakel, â€Å"arriv[ing] on a world utterly unlike† (3) any you’ve ever known can be a symbol for the Garden of Eden. As the characters of the novel become blind, they are transported to a new world, a world with vastly different sensory realities. Only one woman, the doctor’s wife, retains her sight allocating her the role of Eve in the biblical allusion. Schakel describes the Eve of a story as someone who, despite purity and wholesomeness, is constantly tempted to fail, and must resist the temptations provided by the world around her (4). The doctor’s wife, a lonely seeing island in a sea of blindness, remarks that â€Å"no one should find out that I can see† (Saramago 144), establishing the temptations that define her as Eve. The reason she must remain in secrecy is also desc ribed by Schakel, who explains once you fall to the temptations of the devil, you â€Å"belong to [the devil] as [their] lawful prey† (7). This raises a question as to who plays the role of devil in the story. The answer is never specifically mentioned in the novel, but most would say the devil is whatever caused the epidemic of blindness that befell the nation. The devil puts an immense amount of pressure on the doctor’s wife, who could easily take control of the ward with the powers she has, but like the apple in the Garden, this comes at a cost. The doctor’s wife’s survival remains essential to the preservation of her life and the preservation of humanity. These biblical images play an essential role in the understanding of Blindness because they help establish the religious themes that persist throughout the novel. With these religious ties come motifs of morality, which highlight the true impact a loss of God has on the moral purity of the characters. One moral dilemma in Blindness involves crime, which plays a significant role in establishing the effects the epidemic has on the internees. The first instance of crime occurs before the quarantine has even been established, when one man steals the first blind man’s car. Due to the blind man’s vulnerability, the car thief has an easy job taking the poor man’s car. With only one blind person, hardly an epidemic at this point, humanity already takes advantage of the inconvenienced. Saramago utilizes this to hint at what he believes is the inherent nature of humanity, a theme that will persist. As karma dictates, the car thief eventually goes blind, and meets with the first blind man in quarantine. Justifying his actions, the thief says, â€Å"I stole your car, but you stole my eyesight† (Sarmago 52), again hinting at the eye for an eye mentality existent in society. The Fragility Of Humanity’S Morals The rapidity at which human relations sunk to blaming and pointing fingers reveals the fragility of humanity’s morals. The other occurrences of crime occur within the walls of the prison, and come at the cost of a life. Once trapped inside the quarantine, the thief, whose morals are already in question, â€Å"fondl[es] [the girl with dark glasses’] breast†¦, grabbing her firmly† (Saramago 55). In response, the girl with dark glasses stabs the thief with the heel of her shoe, which eventually gets infected and kills the man. While many might say the thief deserved this punishment, many internees, including the girl with dark glasses, begin to feel sorry for him leading up to his death. The balance between self-defense and retaining purity show the rift in faith and morality. The other murder that occurs during the novel involved the doctor’s wife killing the man who raped her. While the significance of this moment will be analyzed later, it is import ant to note how quickly the miniature society dissolves into harassment, violence, and murder. This imagery helps Saramago drive his message that losing faith in God results in a loss in purity and goodness. The crimes committed within the walls of the quarantine, as we have seen, all involved some sort of erotic, sexual desire or crime. The eroticism presented in the novel plays a significant role in shaping the theme of the story and establishing the loss in morality that occurs along with the loss in sight. According to Shaoyang Zhang’s article on the works of the poet Kevin Hart, â€Å"The ‘essence’ of ‘religionis the search for lost intimacy’† (1). As the characters within the novel go blind, they lose their intimacy with the world around them. Their loss in sight symbolizes a loss in experience, a loss in love, and a loss in life. Through their sexual behavior, the characters attempt to regain the intimacy they lost. Saramago explores a number of intimate relationships within the novel, one of which being the marriage between the doctor and the doctor’s wife. Their marriage could not be better, â€Å"they still greeted each other with words of affection after all these years of marriage† (Saramago 32), and the strong bond between them does not seem at all fragile. However, when locked up in the quarantine, the doctor cheats on his wife briefly with the girl with the dark glasses. Rather than become angry, as many would do, the doctor’s wife remarks that â€Å"it’s not a crime that calls for pardon† (Saramago 274), again showcasing the twisted moral views taken on by the characters. The failure of marriage, being a deeply religious institution, brings back the religious aspects of the novel. The loss in sight translates to a loss in God and to a loss in institutional faith and religious morality. However, the forgiveness of the doctor by his wife, however noble i t may seem, highlights the breaking down of a religious establishment. Another relationship that establishes itself over the course of the novel is that between the girl with the dark glasses and the old man with the black eyepatch. Knowing that the girl with the dark glasses has conjunctivitis, it becomes significant that both of these people have eye conditions. Their unorthodox love, which develops despite an age and cultural difference, is symbolized by their previous eye conditions. Although they lost their faith through their loss in sight, like the other characters, their faith was already hindered prior to the epidemic, hinted at by the girl’s job as a part-time prostitute, and thus they formed a bond despite the factors fighting against them. According to Shaoyang Zhang, â€Å"the more strictly forbidden something is by law or rules, the stronger one’s desire becomes to obtain or possess it† (4). As a result, the forbidden love between the man with the eyepatch and the girl with dark glasses was formed predominantly by erot ic desire, and was aided by an already injured faith. Their ability to form a loving relationship hints that morality may not be completely lost; however the methods in which that love is obtained do illustrate the absence of religion in their relationship, furthering Saramago’s claim that faith has been lost by humanity. Not all religious messages in Blindness are strictly ties to Christianity or an established faith. Saramago weaves other theological theories into the novel, including the divinity of women. In Blindness, women play a significant part in not only shaping the plot of the story, but also shaping the thematic messages of the story as well. According to Shaoyang Zhang, women have a â€Å"proximity to the divine† (3) that shapes human interaction and spirituality. The most obvious example of the religious impact women have on the blind society is when the ward with the gun prompts the rest of the wards to â€Å"bring us [their] women† (Saramago 180) in order to rape them. The blunt statement illustrates the immense power the women have over the men in the wards. The women become a spiritual currency, exchanging their sexual favors for food, water, and resources. â€Å"Reminiscent of the ‘forbidden fruit’ that Adam and Eve ate in the Garden of Eden† (Zhang 4), the women tempt the men, who attempt to get closer to God due to women’s closeness to God. This supports Shaoyang Zhang’s claim that â€Å"religious desire and erotic desire are neighbors† (6). However, as Zhang points out, â€Å"the stronger one’s desire becomesphysical death may be caused, which canshow the relationship between desire and death in eroticism† (4). The similarities between erotic desire and death are highlighted in the novel. Men revert to animalistic tendencies, their need to take control ends up backfiring as the women, with the help of God, fight back and end up killing the men who raped them. Due to their absence from God , the men sought for some sort of pleasure, and since spiritual pleasure could not be achieved, they believed their only option was to turn to sex and rape. As stated earlier, the doctor’s wife kills the man who raped her, digging â€Å"deep into the blind man’s throat† (Saramago 204) as he was raping another woman, revealing â€Å"the ‘sacred world’ and the ‘profane world’ are complementary to each† (Zhang 7) other. The relationship between death and sex links the concepts of sin and the afterlife. It is implied the man who raped the doctor’s wife, killed while sinning, is transported straight to hell. His loss in morals is made obvious, and by extension Saramago establishes that every blind person has lost their way. The doctor’s wife, who as a woman is close to God, passed judgement on the blind man and deemed him unworthy of life. While this harsh fate may not be justified for all of the blind men and women, clearly God is not fond of what they have done and what they have become. Similar to the biblical story of Noah’s Ark, God punishes humanity, forcing them to fend for themselves, illustrating the loss in morality and the animalism that persists in man. As the characters begin to feel punished by God, we begin to see one of the most predominant themes of the novel creep in: the death of God. The ‘God is dead’ movement, which â€Å"discussed the need for society to recognize that it behaved as if God were no longer active in the world† (Baugham 1), becomes incredibly apparent in the novel due to an increase in dissent, and the aspect of finding God again. This movement is analogous to the characters’ loss in sight. Even in classical Christian hymns, sight and faith have been described hand in hand, such as the line â€Å"I once was lost but now I see,† from the song Amazing Grace. As they lose their vision, so do they lose their faith, and God, for all intents and purposes, becomes dead to them, leaving them with no torch or beacon to follow. Explained by Gregory Stephens, a loss in God will often lead to the questions, â€Å"‘And I am allowed no explanation?’ ; ‘I am to suffer hell without any account from heaven?’† (6). The heartwrenching thought of losing faith in one’s God is terrible enough, but having no explanation for the absence of God only makes the situations more unbearable for the characters. The characters in Blindness ask God directly, â€Å"dear God, how we miss having our sight, to be able to see, anything that has light does not belong to me† (Saramago 75). The characters seek justification, some sort of sign that they will be okay, or at the very least that they deserve the pain and suffering they are struggling through. The lack of such reasoning often leads the characters to lash out at God, e xclaiming â€Å"God does not deserve to see† (Saramago 345), an anger so intense it is directed at what may be the center of all creation. Because of this anger, the characters are driven to dissent, and are pushed away from religion, in turn pushing them away from their morals. One was in which dissent is treated in Blindness is the focus on having a â€Å"strong, centralized authority† (Ward 4), which is â€Å"especially important† (Ward 4) in dealing with religious fragmentation. Throughout the novel, there are multiple authorities that attempt to take control of the situation. However, these authorities often turn violent, including both the guards, who â€Å"release[d] a blast of gunfire† (Sarmago 83) into the blind internees, and the ward with the gun, who threaten that the internees will â€Å"suffer the consequences† (Saramago 151) for doing anything out of line. The violent leadership does no good, according to David Ward, who believes the authorities must be â€Å"enlightened, unbiased citizensdrawn from all classes† (9). The lack of fair leadership and the contrasting personalities fighting for power results in a society where dissent from faith and from norms becomes acceptable. According to Ward, â€Å"right religion consists of righteous living, or ‘goodness’rather than the embracing of a certain set of abstract, narrowly defined propositions about the deity and the condition of mankind† (15). Ward believes faithful living comes from following an example, and setting an example, rather than simply abiding by arbitrary rules set by someone in power. Within Blindness, the authorities rely on rules, such as the loudspeaker within the prison, which â€Å"repeat[s] the rules of orderly conduct† (Saramago 126) daily, establishing the very authoritarian power Ward speaks against. The officials attempt to govern what everybody does in order to assert and retain their power, and yet in doing so, they create controversy and conflict, which gets civilians shot and killed. Had they relied on a set of principles governing the morality of how they should act, less conflict would arise and dissent could have been avoided. However, due to the lo ss in morals experienced by the blind, the internees become savage, sleeping â€Å"in beds where they had frequently defecated† (Saramago 146), illustrating humanity’s tendency to â€Å"look at an animal and see a mirror† (Stephens 5). The animalistic becomings of the blind society highlights the impact losing God has on morality and purity. Another way in which society tends to deal with dissent, according to David Ward, is physical assault. As evidenced throughout the book, physical violence is utilized repeatedly to deal with people who differ from the norm. The ward with the gun establish themselves as a deity for the internees. They place themselves on a pedestal, serving â€Å"as a metaphor for removing the threat posed by religious dissentby the simple means of force and exclusion† (Ward 2). The ward create separate groups, the haves and the have-nots, not only encouraging dissent but institutionalizing dissent, using physical assault as their tool of persuasion. Matthew Arnold, analyzed by David Ward, believes this is the worst way to deal with dissenters, and throughout the novel he is repeatedly proven correct. The social ladder created by the physical threats is supported via a physical manifestation of God. Much like bread and wine, a tangible symbol for God is important in establishing the â€Å"continuity† (Zhang 2) of God. The gun creates this embodiment of faith, however, the weapon describes violence. God is portrayed as ravenous, murdering, and harmful, damaging the image of God again promoting dissent and damaging morality. Rather than see God in a positive light, his image is tainted with blood. God becomes an image of death, rather than a bringer of life. As a result of this, physical assault brings the internees closer to animalism instead of forcing an orderly society. Without God, Saramago again illustrates the innate nature of humans. According to Schakel, every dissenter â€Å"belongs to [the devil] as [his] lawful prey andfor every treachery [he] has a right to kill (7). By removing God from their lives, the internees enter a world with no order and no purpose, and as a result physical violence appears to be the only answer to the lawless landscape that surfaces. Throughout the story, dissent from God leads to an arduous journey for the characters to create a new image of God and regain a deity figure in their lives. Conclusion The novel depicts many instances where the image of God becomes damaged or twisted, leading to changes in the belief system of the characters. One such instance occurs when the doctor’s wife enters a church after escaping the prison. In the church, she discovers â€Å"statues with a white cloth tied around the head, paintings with a thick brushstroke of white paint, and a man with wounds on his hands and feet and his chest, and he had his eyes covered† (Saramago 344). Covering the religious figures’ eyes with white illustrates the betrayal the blind feel towards God. In order to retain their sanity, they do to God what God did to them, highlighting the bitter feelings society has developed towards their deity. As described by Timothy Kelley, â€Å"God is in his mind another threat, or perhaps the source of all threats and all darkness† (7), suggesting that the blind feel as if God is punishing them. In return, the blind punish the thought of God, making Hi m blind just as He made them blind, depicting the damaged image of God. In order to understand the linkage between man and God, there must be sensory experience. According to Timothy Kelley, â€Å"sensory experienceprovides both the basis for human reason and a connection to the spiritual world† (2). As a result, losing sight is synonymous with losing an aspect of God, losing a side of faith that cannot be recovered without sight. Without sight, our â€Å"connection†¦ with the ‘great Thing’† (Kelley 13) is hindered, and as a result, there are more questions, more unknowns, that haunt society, for there is no way to answer said questions until sight is regained. The impact of losing sight digs deeper than a loss in God, it causes an entire aspect of human life, the ability to observe and learn, the ability to ask questions and enquire, to be rendered useless.

Friday, May 15, 2020

Art and Literature in Augustan Rome - 1252 Words

Art and Literature in Augustan Rome The beginning of this time period comes with the death of Julius Caesar and the rise to power of his nephew, Octavius. He was in the Second Triumvirate that was formed to maintain order in Rome. Octavian, Marcus Lepidus, and Marc Antony ruled formally unlike the informal triumvirate of Julius Caesar. The triumvirate set out to execute members of the conspiracy against Julius Caesar. In 42 BC, Brutus and Cassius were finally defeated. In the following years the triumvirate diminished. In 36 BC, Lepidus retired. Marc Antony began to have affairs with Cleopatra, the queen of Egypt. These affairs briefly came to a pause when Antony married Octavian’s sister Octavia. Marc Antony later returns to Egypt and†¦show more content†¦Another example is that the poem also served in Augustus’s attempts to re-introduce Roman values into Roman society, including reverence for the gods. Aeneas continually showed reverence to the gods, just as he did when he left Dido because it was the god’s will. The poem continues to reflect these ideals by portraying Aeneas not as a man motivated by personal gain, but a man motivated by his love and loyalty to his country, people and gods. For Romans the Aeneid is seen as something mystical, which it may be, but for Augustus it is just another example of his use of literature and art as propaganda. Augustus also united the Empire through his use of the arts as a form of self-promotion and to promote the themes of his administration, such as peace, allegiance to Rome, and respect for tradition. He visually improved the city by constructing new buildings that were worthy of the powerful Empire. He made art into the materialization of Roman government which was an idea continued by his descendants and was declared a god. He knew that he had to portray his greatness in all the aspects of his subjects’ lives, including the arts. Three examples of such art are the Ara Pacis, the Temple of Mars, and the Res Ges tae Divi Augustus. The Ara Pacis was made to honor the triumphal return from Spain and Gaul of Augustus and to celebrate the peace established by his victories. The Temple of Mars was constructed in Rome, to giveShow MoreRelated Augustan Poetry Essay830 Words   |  4 PagesAugustan Poetry Often through hardship and nearly insurmountable difficulty great works of art are born. Although years of bloodshed and civil war had plagued Rome since the death of Julius Caesar, some of the most powerful and influential literature in the western world was developed in that timeframe. During the Age of Augustus (approximately 43 BC – 17 AD) such great writers as Virgil, Horace, Livy, Propertius, and Ovid created epic masterpieces of literature and philosophy. It was throughRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Two Of The Aeneid 876 Words   |  4 Pageswas spattered throughout the pages of historical literature and art. Unlike our contemporary â€Å"piety†, however, Pietas refers to a much more broad and abstract devotion. Roughly translated, it means a loyalty to family and country. Or, in more direct terms, it is a sense of duty and responsibility specifically to one’s father, Roman values and customs, the Gods, and country. Pietas was commonly displayed through a rt, sculpture, and even literature throughout the entire length of the Roman empire,Read MoreReflection Of Ovids Metamorphoss1330 Words   |  6 PagesLatin poems. Unlike Virgils Aeneid, which preceded it by twenty-one years, it is elusive and ironic, mythic rather than historical, and, as its name suggests, continually shifting its shape. Rather than chronicling and celebrating the monumentality of Rome and the grandeur of its emperor, Ovid here examines and reflects upon the passions and inner strengths and weaknesses of individuals. The Metamorphoses is a collection of tales rather than one complex story or set of adventures. Many scholars argueRead MoreAugustan Art and Propaganda Essay1964 Words   |  8 PagesAugustan Art and Propaganda Julius Caesars reign was an unfavorable and chaotic period for Rome, and after his death, a large portion of the empire was handed down to his adopted son, Gaius Octavian. From the ashes of his father, Octavian was able to build an Empire unparalleled. Later, the name Augustus was given to him by Senate. Augustus ostensibly maintained the form of the Roman Republic while in actuality creating the Roman Empire. He introduced the administrative reforms that led to theRead MoreWhy The Greeks Influenced Roman Culture1015 Words   |  5 Pagesthis, I will support my discussion with a set of specific examples. Lastly, as I have a personal interest in museum studies, I will briefly answer the question: Was it theft? Did the Romans really loot Greek art, and what for? . Discussion The Roman adoption of Greek culture and arts started via the Greek colonies sometime c 700 BC; yet it was intensified in the late Third and Second Millennium BC, when expansion into the Hellenistic world opened Roman eyes to the hitherto unregardedRead MoreThe Romans Of The Augustan Age1761 Words   |  8 Pages1. What does it mean to be a Roman? How did the Romans of the Augustan age think about themselves? What are some of the important ideas that they used to form their identity? How did they see themselves in relationship to others? How did other peoples contribute to their identity? To be a Roman is a very honorable trait, because at the time Rome had taken over most of the modern world. For one to be a Roman they must have honor and respect and if they lost those two traits they would be ashamedRead MoreTheme in Virgil’s Aeneid625 Words   |  3 PagesVirgil, the most distinguished poet of the Roman Empire lived during the rulings of emperor Octavian, better known as Augustus. His father a farmer, he found no time for the daily grind, instead Virgil sought writing. His primary works of art centered on turmoil brought on by evil power and pointless wars. The history of this time is fascinating because it is the beginning of what we know today as the Roman Empire. It is easy to poke fun at Virgil as a spawn of Homer as his writing is similar inRead MoreThe English Renaissance : The Golden Age1861 Words   |  8 PagesSpain. During Queen Elizabeth’s reign, London became a place where learning and literature disproved. She also recognized the import ance of art and theater, which is the reason they prospered under her. Her personal esteem of music, drama and poetry made it possible for members of the court to support the arts. Moreover, This Golden Age represented the flowering of literature, poetry and music. Literature, visual arts, music and architecture were some of the main factors of the English RenaissanceRead MoreComparison Between Roman And Roman Civilization1565 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction- Since Roman Civilization Rome itself is highly recognized for its most notorious dynasties of all the city gained its own image in exposing harsh cruelty. During the years in BC Imperial and administration earned Hellenistic Empires from republic, after being discovered in Sicily, Macedonia, between The Seleucid and Egypt itself was barely modify to a lending degree to prevail percentages from the Domain, Ever since then Rome has always been widely known for its brutal behavior andRead MoreEssay on Augustus Caesar859 Words   |  4 PagesEmpire. He made Rome what think of it as and what we study today. Octavian’s first public appearance was in 51 BC when he delivered his grandmother’s eulogy. In 48 BC he started his political career when he was elected to pontifical college. In 45 BC he went with Caesar to Spain and in 44 BC when Caesar was killed he discovered he had been adopted by him. Upon this happening Octavian gathered support and troops and went to Rome to make his adoption official. When he got to Rome, Marc Antony,

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay about The Heated Debate Concerning Stem Cell Research

Stem Cell Research Using stem cells in their research, scientists are able to discover new information that leads to advancements in the scientific society. However, what many people do not understand is that stem cells are unlike other types of cells, and this is because of two significant characteristics. These differences lead to a lot of controversy, as youll soon see. First, stem cells are able to renew themselves for long periods of time through the process of cell division, thus making them specialized cells. Secondly, stem cells can be used under certain physiologic or experimental conditions. They can be induced (meaning that they can be converted) to become cells with particular duties. For example, they could be the†¦show more content†¦It may also suggest new strategies for therapy and treatment. However, some ask why new discoveries have not arisen already, seeing as stem cells can provide much needed information from research. The answer to this is that scientists face a major obstacle in understanding the signals that turn specific genes on and off in our bodies. This is important, because when the genes turn on and off, they influence the differentiation of the stem cell -- vital information, which scientists need to know. Another factor in dealing with stem cells is the need for organ transplants. All over the world, people are in need of donated organs in order to survive. However, the people needing a transplant far outnumber the donors. Stem cells can be used to make and replace donor organs, thus providing relief in a quicker amount of time, improving and even saving a myriad of lives. Many people are against the use of stem cells -- not only for cancer research -- but because it is intertwined with cloning, a very controversial topic. In fact, there is a current legal situation in Australia where the government has decided to put a ban on all human reproductive cloning. However, there is not a current ban on other aspects of embryonic research, including stem cells. Debates like this rage across the globe. Deciding whether it is right or wrong to use stem cells in research is a matter of choice, since some can look at it with a scientificShow MoreRelatedThe Heated Debate Concerning Stem Cell Research Essay1043 Words   |  5 PagesStates, research has become a viable tool for sustaining and prolonging human life. As research evolves, it brings along with it much controversy, especially where stem cell research is involved. Stem cell research can bring new insight to today’s medical field. This may be the way of finding solutions concerning many health injuries and diseases which would diversely be thought of as implausible. Thoughts can be influenced by Deborah White, in Pros Cons of Embryonic Stem Cell Research, â€Å"EmbryonicRead MoreThe Heated Debate Concerning Stem Cell Research Essay787 Words   |  4 PagesThe Controversy Over Stem Cell Research In a lab at the University of California, a scientist carefully isolates several cells and locates them to a petry dish. A few days later, he returns to find the cells pulsating like a human heart (Gorman 58). This account has actually been occurring at several scientific labs across the nation. These cells, known as stem cells, produce nearly all the other cells and tissues found in the human body (Sobel Sep 4, 22). Intensive research has found that whenRead MoreThe Heated Debate Concerning Stem Cell Research Essay2353 Words   |  10 PagesThe Moral Debate over Stem Cell Research President George W. Bush looked stern and confident as he addressed the American people on August 9th, 2001. It was an historic day for the 43rd president, as he explained the debate surrounding embryonic stem cell research, including its possible benefits for science but also its problems surrounding morals and ethics. â€Å"The issue is debated within the church, with people of different faiths, even many of the same faith coming to different conclusionsRead MoreEssay on The Heated Debate Concerning Stem Cell Research2589 Words   |  11 Pagesof stem cells can become a very controversial subject in the scientific research world. Stem cells serve as an internal repair system to restore other cells as long as the person or animal is still alive. By doing so, many fatal and untreatable diseases such as leukemia and Parkinson’s would be able to be treated and cured. The origination of stem cells is what stirs up great controversy across the nation and among the world. Until recently, scientists primarily worked with two kinds of stem cells:Read MoreThe Heated Debate Concerning Stem Cell Research Essay878 Words   |  4 PagesStem Cell Research   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The topic of stem cell research does not affect me so much at the moment. It might in the future, but for now it does not. I do believe that stem cell research should be used for cloning organs that will be used for organ transplants. I do not however think that parents should place the doctors on pedestals just because these â€Å"mad scientists† supposedly have the power of God.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The topic of heated debate does intrigue me, but not to the point as to where I would makeRead MoreEssay on The Heated Debate Concerning Stem Cell Research1025 Words   |  5 PagesStem Cell Research Should stem cell research be allowed? Stem cell research has been a major biological breakthrough in recent years. It has great potential to help people and ease suffering. But there is also a moral question raised about stem cell research, and that comes from the source of stem cells. Ever since Stem Cell research started, there has been much debate over whether or not it should be allowed. Some people are completely against stem cell research becauseRead MoreThe Heated Debate Concerning Stem Cell Research Essay1477 Words   |  6 PagesStem Cells Few scientific issues in recent years have managed to draw as much attention, both scientific and otherwise, than stem cell research. I was first introduced to the term ‘stem cells’ when I was in high school, and since then, I have had a keen interest in the direction science is taking them. When considering medical research as a whole, stem cells appear to have the makings of a 21st century medical revolution a la discovery of antibiotics . The open-ended nature of stems cells hasRead More The Heated Debate Concerning Stem Cell Research Essay3495 Words   |  14 PagesEmbryonic Stem Cell Research Stem cells are the newest hot topic in biological research. Very few other ongoing areas of research have been the focus of numerous articles, Presidential and Congressional scrutiny, and numerous ethical debates played out in the national media. This ongoing focus on stem cells is due in part to their amazing potential and in part to the controversial nature of one type of stem cell—the embryonic stem cell. The key question that is being dealt with is the issueRead MoreThe Heated Debate Concerning Stem Cell Research Essay2717 Words   |  11 PagesStem Cell Research - Embryonic Stem Cell Use Controversial Despite the strong consensus in America against creating embryos to destroy them, those actually involved in embryo research no longer see any serious ethical problem in it. Now the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) says that ASRMs ethical guidelines permit the creation of human embryos to destroy them. Some even argue that such research is morally superior to the use of spare embryos, because the egg and sperm donorsRead MoreThe Heated Debate Concerning Stem Cell Research Essay2103 Words   |  9 Pages(Engebreston, 2006). In today’s world medical research and technology is rapidly changing and there are increasing ethical conflicts between science and religion particularly with the recent harvest and research of embryonic stem cells. The use of embryonic stem cells has been described by â€Å"Chris McDonald, stem cell research centre, 2008† as one of the most significant breakthroughs of this century in biomedicine. The focus question within this rese arch assignment is, it is right to regard an embryo

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Marketing Promotional Objectives Promotions-Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: How To Marketing Promotional Objectives And Promotions? Answer: Introduction The Central Queensland University is in Australia and is founded in 1965. The university was earlier known as Queensland Institute and was changed to the university in 1992. The university is located in Rockhampton, but it also has its institutes located in different areas of Australia. It is the first dual sector university in Australia, which is providing higher studies with vocational training. It has 25 campuses located in different parts of Australia (Australian Education Network, 2017). These are located in Emerald, Gladstine City, Rockhampton City, Mackay City etc. Various courses are offered by the university in different campus. It is also running various research programs to boost up the students for research activities. It is running various distance learning courses as well as regular courses in the campus. The university has come into partnership with other universities to make new developments in the university and to provide students with exposure to the learning and o verall development. There are various national and international students studying in the university (CQUniversity Australia, 2017). Mission The main objective of the university is to provide a wide variety of courses to the students for the dual sector program and also make the university digitized so that it will help students in the research work in 2018. The research work of the students helps the university to make a good reputation in the market. Also, by adding a variety of courses the strength of the university increases, which will benefit the university in financial terms (Education, 2017). Vision By 2018 making all the courses running at the university to the top level in the country. To make good reputation of the university by making students indulge in various research works. Market Summary Situation Analysis Marketing helps the customers to get what is desired by them. Marketing play a very important role in branding a name and making it popular among the customers. It helps in the growth as well as profitability of a business. Therefore, marketing and branding a University is also very important these days. It helps in bringing the competitive environment and growth to the university. Therefore, to make improvement and to gain competitive advantage over the customers the marketing of the university is done. It helps in determining the current position of the university in the market and determines where improvement is needed. Demand analysis Due to the young population in Australia, the number of students want to join the university. Also, the university is offering a variety of courses which gives students the option of choosing the course in which he or she is interested. The Central Queensland University is providing students a digitized learning program and library which help them in their research work. The distance learning courses also attract the students from various areas who do not afford the regular classes. They are provided by distance learning courses so that they can study during the times when they want. Therefore, a good learning environment and online education facilities are helping the students as well as university to grow (Debrecht Levas, 2014). Market Demography There are many universities in Australia. Due to this the CQ University is facing a lot of competition. Therefore, to attract students, the university should have any differentiation so as to gain the competitive advantage. The Digitized system in the University and the distance learning program running in the university attracts a number of students to the University. Therefore, the student recruitment become easier due to the variety of courses run by the university. Segmentation and targeting Due to the variety of courses offered by the university the target will be students from local as well as remote areas. Also, the students can also be recruited internationally. The students who want to choose the distance learning program could be the target. The students from the developing countries like China, India can be the international targets who can afford the fees and like to join the university. Therefore, the target audience will the young students who have completed their school studies and are eligible for higher education. Marketing Environment PEST analysis PEST analysis helps in scanning the external environment of the business. It is a tool for determining the external factors like political, economical, social and technological. These aspects help in the analysis of the external environment that how much a business entity gets affected by the influence of political and social factors and also, technological and economic factors. Political Factors The political factors influence in the university, depends on the interference of government in the university. Also, the change in the government and its rules affect the university. The rules placed by one government over the university for the admission of international student changes when the other government rule is established. Sometimes the rules for admission are changed yearly, which affects the admission process. Also, the admission of students internationally is decreased due to the tough rules made by the government and the Asian countries are also opening institution there for the students. Therefore, political factors are important in case of any business entity and it influences the students for taking admission in the university (Stansbury, 2015). Economic Factors The university is providing economic courses for local as well as international students. The percentage of international students in increasing every year in the CQU. Due to the universities less expensive courses and learning environment the students get attracted toward the university (Mukherjee, 2015). Also, for local students government is funding the students who cannot afford the higher education. Therefore, it is also helping the universities attracting the national students as well. Social Factors There are a variety of students in Central Queensland University. The students come from different areas in the university. It has national and international students. Therefore, diverse students that are coming from different culture, background, age and race are coming together on one platform. Therefore, the students learn from each other. They learn different languages as well as different cultures. This helps them to develop an exposure to the world. This helps them to adapt to the environment that has diversification, which build up their capability of adapting. Technological Factors The technology is changing day by day. The university is trying to build new labs and libraries which can help students in learning and research work. This will provide a better environment and a learning atmosphere for the students. CQ university is also providing online lectures, interaction with professors online, online access to the library that with help the students learning from home and also help distant learning students to understand the concepts and their course thoroughly. This is helping the students to grow technologically as well as developing the positive attitudes of the students towards the university (SDS University, 2013). Situation Analysis The situation analysis helps in determining the actual market position of the University. It will help in determining the internal environment of the university with the help of SWOT analysis. The SWOT analysis will determine the strength, weakness, opportunity and threats to the university. IT will help in the complete understanding of the strategies that will help in the eliminating the threats and weakness of the university. SWOT Analysis Through this analysis the strategic situation of the organization can be identified so that the organization can set its objectives. Strength Campus in various areas Variety of courses Dual sector programs Distance learning programs The University has an advantage of running various programs in different areas which help students to study nearby their native place. The studies become less expensive also when students come from home to attend the lectures. CQU has campuses in different regions of Australia, so it will help them to credit transfer in any of the campuses in Australia. There are a variety of courses in the university that help students to pursue the education of their choice. The digitized learning programs help students to learn from a distant location with the help of online assistance. The professors interaction online gives students a support in learning from a far area. The distance learning programs are also becoming the strength of the university who cannot afford to attend the regular classes (University of Arkansas, 2017). Weakness Ranking of the university Name recognition The main weakness of the university is the ranking in all the courses of the university. The university has to improve its ranking so as to recruit students with a good academic base. Also, to attract renowned professors the ranking of the university should be increased. The university has to maintain the brand name for the recruiting purpose and also it is useful for the growth of the business unit (Vogel Bodnar, 2011). Opportunity National and international research activities Digitized learning The students from all over the world make the environment in the university competitive. It helps in the improving the working with the students. Also the competitive environment helps in the motivation of the students that will lead to the quality research work and learning by national as well as by the international students. Also, the digitized learning programs can act as a major opportunity for the students. From this the students can learn a lot from their place. This will grab students attention and the recruitment of the students can be increased. This will lead to the opportunity for the university as well. Threats Competition from other universities Removal of some courses for local students Some courses are removed from the list for the local students by the department of immigration of Australia. Due to this the local students are getting annoyed and are preferring other universities. The university is giving priority to the international students for theses courses which can be a big threat to the university by the local students. Also, competition from other universities is a threat. The universities that are offering the same courses to the students can pose a big threat to the CQU (UNA, 2007). Competitor Analysis Current Competitors and strategies There are many universities in Australia that gives competition to the Central Queensland University. These universities are running the similar courses that poses a great threat to the CQU. The competition is in terms of ranking and reputation. All the universities are trying to get into a good place in the ranking, which help in making the reputation among the faculty as well as the students. The competitors of the university are Australian Catholic University (ACU) and University of Technology, Sydney. The students of distance education in CQU is about 46.7% and in UTS the percentage is only 2%, and in the ACU the percentage is 7.5%. The variation in the percentage is majorly due to the low fee structure compared to the other universities (Ferns, Hudghton, McGraw, Merrywest, 2015). The ranking of the UTS is above than that of CQU which makes it a competition in terms of ranking. The strategies must be developed in order to gain the ranking of the universities. Strategy: By using technology in the research work, the work can be enhanced and will help the university to improve its ranking. By recruiting good academic students. By creating differentiation. By gaining competitive advantage. By diversification. These all strategies will help the university to gain ranking by improving its reputation towards the studies. Also, incorporating technology will help in improving the rank of the university. Marketing Aim The main marketing aim of the CQU is to open a variety of courses and to make the courses digitized in 2018. The university has to run different courses in distance learning program so that the university can attract a good academic student and can improve its ranking as well as reputation in the market. This will help the university to gain differentiation which will lead to the competitive advantage (Willamette University, 2015). Marketing promotional objectives and promotions Properly defining the new courses. Adding the new courses in websites as well as on brochures. Promoting digitized learning with the help of highlighting the same with websites and brochure Sending emails to students and parents to increase awareness regarding the digitized learning. Adding the admission criteria regarding the new courses. Enhance reputation through media relations These are the promotional objectives of the university and can be done with the help of giving the work to the outside vendor. The promotion can be done with the help of media and website. Also, the newsroom can be made in the university so that parents can look into the achievement of the university. This can also be a promotional tactic for the university. The properly defined brochures and websites play an important role in marketing (University, 2015). Value and Brand Positioning analysis The university is first in the Australia to introduce the dual degree courses. It is working in the direction to improve its ranking by adopting digitized learning programs and using technology to increase the research work at the university. The various distance courses in the universities are ranked in the top, but improvement is needed in case of getting the university in top position. The ranking of the university has increased from the earlier one. The university is making efforts by capturing media and by the introduction of new technology (Research, 2014). The University seeks to serve more people in the area, reposition itself in the marketplace, develop broad external support, and form community partnerships to foster academic outreach and economic development. A different policy of improving the ranking should be adopted by the university in 2018 so as to gain the ranking and reputation (ABS Team, 2017). Therefore, digitized learning is a first step in this. Research relate d activities can be enhanced with the help of technology and students from the distant program can also participate in research work with the help of improved technology. Key distinctions In 2018, the introduction of variety of courses in the university. Improvement in technology. Introduction of digitized learning. Marketing Mix Strategies Marketing and competitive strategies Strategy: Increase external visibility and awareness that will highlight the CQ university. Tactics More fully utilize key words on strategic web pages to maximize hits on search engines. Increase media mix to enhance presence in the media outside of print making decisions to maximize impact. Create measures to assist with evaluating placement effectiveness (Saludin Mukaidono, 2012). Strategy: Develop enhanced marketing initiatives for academic programs with significant growth potential. Tactics Develop marketing initiative for each program to target specific messaging in target specific media outlets. Create stronger collaboration with admissions and these departments to enhance the admissions process for prospective students in these areas. Strategy: Enhance website to reinforce key messages. Tactics Develop a homepage highlighting new courses Highlighting on the digital learning should also be given (Roberts, 2015). Strategy: Enhance reputation through media relations Tactics Explore tools that can increase opportunities to match faculty experts with hot topics Become active organizations that allow for casual contact with the media to build stronger individual relationships and greater awareness of the University. Strategy: Creating the magazine of the university. Tactics Creating the magazine will help in making the awareness regarding the achievements of the university and will enhance the reputation of the university among the parents as well as the students (Xiong, 2009). Media and Budget allocation (2018) Building a market position cannot be accomplished through advertising alone. The efforts should be made by each member of the university for the change in the websites, magazine and brochure. However, it is important that there be a continued commitment to messaging campaigns for all target audiences. Print advertising (2018): $ 30000. This is the approximate budget for printing brochures and magazines. It also includes the budget for graphic designing. The detailed budget is as follows. Marketing: $ 5000 is the approx budget that is required for the marketing. Graphic Designing: $ 12000 is the approx budget given to the vendors for the designing of graphics. Printing of magazines and brochures: $ 30000 is required for printing of good quality magazines and brochures. Concept development and designing of magazine and brochure: $ 5000 to the vendor. Television advertising and radio advertising: $ 20000 required for the advertisement purpose. Web advertising: $ 2000 for running the advertisement on the website. Conclusion The Vision, Values, marketing strategies, goals and Strategy described in this plan will help in increasing the ranking profile of the University. The Central Queensland University is continuously making efforts to improve its position it the market. The efforts are being made in the direction of improving the technology in the university and by the adding of various courses in the university. The digitized learning is also one step further in this direction. Marketing plan suggested will add up in the reputation of the university. It will help the university in branding and upgrading its position in the market. References ABS Team. (2017). Austrlian bureau of stastics website. Retrieved from Australian Education Network. (2017). CQUniversity (CQU) Profile. Retrieved from CQUniversity Australia. (2017). CQUniversity Australia official website. Retrieved from Debrecht, D., Levas, M. (2014). Using the Boston Consulting Group Portfolio Matrix to Analyze Management of a Business Undergraduate Student Program at a Small Liberal Arts University. Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, 14(3), 65-69. Retrieved from Education, T. H. (2017). Central Queensland University: Description. Retrieved from Ferns, A., Hudghton, T., McGraw, R., Merrywest, S. (2015). Communications and Marketing Plan. The University of Manchester. Retrieved from Mukherjee, S. (2015, May 13). Pest analysis of educational academy in UK. Retrieved from Research, H. (2014). Trends in Higher Education Marketing, Recruitment, and Technology. Retrieved from Roberts, J. (2015). CQUniversity 2015 annual report. Retrieved from Saludin, M., Mukaidono, M. (2012). Deriving consensus rankings via multicriteria decision making. Retrieved from SDS University. (2013). University Marketing and Communications : Strategic plan. Retrieved from Stansbury, M. (2015). PEST (Political, Economic, Social, and Technological) Analysis Research from Fall 2015. Retrieved from UNA. (2007). University of North Alabama: SWOT analysis. Retrieved from University of Arkansas. (2017). Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats. Retrieved from University, K. (2015). Strategic marketing plan 2015-2017. Retrieved from Vogel, M., Bodnar, J. (2011). 2010-2011 Marketing Plan. OHIO University. Retrieved from Willamette University. (2015). Institutional Marketing Plan 20152018. Retrieved from Xiong, P. (2009). Road to One Million: A Marketing Plan for Dead Promise. Alaska Pacific University. Retrieved from

Sunday, April 12, 2020

Pierre De Fermat Essays (890 words) - Integer Sequences,

Pierre De Fermat Pierre de Fermat Pierre de Fermat was born in the year 1601 in Beaumont-de-Lomages, France. Mr. Fermat's education began in 1631. He was home schooled. Mr. Fermat was a single man through his life. Pierre de Fermat, like many mathematicians of the early 17th century, found solutions to the four major problems that created a form of math called calculus. Before Sir Isaac Newton was even born, Fermat found a method for finding the tangent to a curve. He tried different ways in math to improve the system. This was his occupation. Mr. Fermat was a good scholar, and amused himself by restoring the work of Apollonius on plane loci. Mr. Fermat published only a few papers in his lifetime and gave no systematic exposition of his methods. He had a habit of scribbling notes in the margins of books or in letters rather than publishing them. He was modest because he thought if he published his theorems the people would not believe them. He did not seem to have the intention to publish his papers. It is probable that he revised his notes as the occasion required. His published works represent the final form of his research, and therefore cannot be dated earlier than 1660. Mr. Pierre de Fermat discovered many things in his lifetime. Some things that he did include: -If p is a prime and a is a prime to p then ap-1-1 is divisible by p, that is, ap-1-1=0 (mod p). The proof of this, first given by Euler, was known quite well. A more general theorem is that a0-(n)-1=0 (mod n), where a is prime to n and p(n) is the number of integers less than n and prime to it. -An odd prime number can be expressed as the difference of two square integers in only one way. Fermat's proof is as follows. Let n be prime, and suppose it is equal to x2 -y2 that is, to (x+y)(x-y). Now, by hypothesis, the only basic, integral factors of n and n and unity, hence x+y=n and x-y=1. Solving these equations we get x=1 /2 (n+1) and y=1 /2(n-1). -He gave a proof of the statement made by Diophantus that the sum of the squares of two numbers cannot be the form of 4n-1. He added a corollary which I take to mean that it is impossible that the product of a square and a prime form 4n-1[even if multiplied by a number that is prime to the latter], can be either a square or the sum of two squares. For example, 44 is a multiple of 11(which is of the form 4 x 3 - 1) by 4, therefore it cannot be expressed as the sum of two squares. He also stated that a number of the form a2 +b2, where a is prime b, cannot be divided by a prime of the form 4n-1. -Every prime of the form 4n+1 is accurate as the sum of two squares. This problem was first solved by Euler, who showed that a number of the form 2(4n+1) can be always showen as the sum of two squares, of course it was Mr. Pierre de Fermat. -If a, b, c, are integers, a2 + b2= c2, then ab cannot be a square. Lagrange solved this. - The determination of a number x such that x2n+1 may be squared, where n is a given integer which is not squared. Lagrange gave a solution of this also. -There is only one integral solution of the equation x2 +4=y3. The required solutions are clearly for the first equation x=5, and for the second equation x=2and x=11. This question was issued as a challenge to the English mathematicians Wallis and Digby. -No basic values of x, y, z can be found to satisfy the equation xn+yn=zn; if n is an integer greater than 2. This thesis has achieved extraordinary celebrity from the fact that no general demonstration of it has been given, but there is no reason to doubt that this true. -Fermat also discovered the general theorem that was on the guess that a number can be found into the product of powers of primes in only one way. These were some interesting things that Mr. Fermat did in

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Query Letter vs. Letter of Introduction

Query Letter vs. Letter of Introduction The shortest,  most blunt email anyone receives from me is The guidelines are on the website, and I send that email many times a week. The online guidelines at clearly ask for articles on spec. Or if a writer isnt sure, they can pitch ideas, and if one is selected, they then submit that piece on spec. But still, I receive letters of introduction. The difference between queries and letters of introduction are simple. QUERIES pitch specific topics or might even pitch the article in its entirety, especially in our situation where the articles are so short (500-600 words). They are as close to publish-ready as a writer can make them and show that a writer understands the publication. They might even write on a topic recommended in the publications guidelines. A LETTER OF INTRODUCTION is when a writer sends a brief

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Customer Beavior(TWEENS, GEN Y AND GEN X) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Customer Beavior(TWEENS, GEN Y AND GEN X) - Essay Example In most cases; they reach out for information crucial to their lives from the media. Peers and their parents help in defining themselves and their general attitude towards things more. Owing to the age cohort that they belong and that most of their decisions are influenced by their peers. The pertinent worries of how they are to fit in seamlessly and form interactions within their gatherings. The marketers need to come up with a marketing strategy that flows with their identity. With the projection in population, tween marketing cannot afford to escape any marketer worth his salt. Tween is primarily because, in 2013, tweens spent up to $ 51 billion on themselves while their parents spent more than $ 170 billion. According to (Yarrow 111), the average American tween earns close to $ 30.00 per week with the greatest proportion of this spent on fashion. (Yarrow 111- 13) Also asserts that 8 in every ten teens listen to music and 90 percent engaged in on-media consumption. While the modern day tween has shifted interest from toys to fancy gadgets like iPhones and music players, marketing strategies are only bound to change. As they identify, they are seen to be following music, celebrities and are involved with technology a great deal. The technology means their attitude towards marketing strategies like direct mails will not bring as many returns as adaptation of marketers to media involving cell phones and emails. For product development, marketers are encoura ged to uphold this group’s intelligence, not oversell and also be direct in the messaging that is also expected to speak their language (Yarrow 122). An example of a service relevant to this group of spenders is an app that allows them to talk to people, share photos instantly and follows celebrities’ lives instantly at the click of a button. A product that identifies them with their favorite celebrities without passing for copycats would make very promising ventures. also